Page Header

Semi-open/outdoor Environment Particulates (TSP, PM10, PM2.5) and Water-soluble Ionic Species (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-) Concentrations Distributions and Dry Depositions Study in ChangHua County, Central Taiwan

Guor-Cheng Fang1, Guan-Jhih Jhao2, Chin-Wei Chang2, Wen-Chuan Huang1, Yuan-Jie Zhuang1

Abstract


This sampling site was located in the ChangHua Coastal Park, ChangHua country, west coast of central Taiwan. The total area was about 3,643 acres. This ChangHua Coastal Park(CHCP) which covered 321 factories which included food, glass, textile, plastic, chemical, metal, electricity, steel, machinery, hardware, wood, gas enterprises. This company was a Slag Reuse factory. The items they processed include: Casting sand, electric arc furnace steelmaking ballast (ballast, reducing ballast), rotary kiln ballast. This study was to measure ambient air particulates, TSP, PM10, PM2.5 concentrations and dry depositions of water-soluble ionic species (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-) which attached with them at this semi-open/outdoor concrete processing factory environment and compare the water-soluble ionic species (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-) concentrations at this semi-open/ outdoor concrete processing factory environments. Finally, compare the average concentrations percentages of water-soluble ionic species (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-) in TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and dry depositions for this semi-open/outdoor environment. The results indicated the average SO42-water-soluble ionic concentration was ranked highest (>45%) among the other water-soluble ionic species (F-, Cl-, NO3-) concentrations. However, water-soluble ionic species F- was ranked lowest about (>15%) in this study. Moreover, coal, fluxes, recycled materials and 4-6 heavy fuel which contained high sulfur contents was the leading reason in the high SO42- ionic species concentration in semi-open/outdoor concrete processing factory. The added of the desulfurizer to form generally remove impurities in the steelmaking processes, is also responsible for the high concentration of SO42- in this study. Finally, ionic species SO42- was the dominate species for concrete processing factory for TSP, dry depositions, PM10, PM2.5. Noteworthy, average semi-open/outdoor concentrations ration for SO42- was about 1.00. The average indoor/outdoor PM2.5 concentrations ratios were ranged 0.354~1.87 at various characteristic sites during years of 2007~2017 in this study. How to improve the semi-open ventilate environment to ensure the employee heath has become an important issue for this working place in the future.

Keywords


Concentrations; Water -soluble ionic species; Semi-open /Outdoor; Dry depositions

Full Text:

PDF

References


Behrooz,R,D., AbbasE, S.,Bahramifar,N., Kaskaoutis,D,G., (2017) Analysis of the TSP, PM10 concentrations and water-soluble ionic species in airborne samples over Sistan, Iran during the summer dusty period. Atmospheric Pollution Research(8) ,403-417.

Schwartz, J., Dockery, D, W., NeasIs, L, M., (1996) Daily mortality associated specifically with fine particles? J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc.,(46), 927-939.

Querol,X., Alastuey,A., Rodriguez, S., Plana, F., Mantilla, E., Ruiz, C,R., (2001) Monitoring of PM10 and PM2.5 around primary particulate anthropogenic emission sourcesAtmos. Environ.(35), pp.845-858.

US EPA (2012) Particulate Matter. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/airquality/particle/pollution/.

Saxena, U.C. Kulshrestha, N. Kumar, K.M. Kumari, S. Prakash, S.S. Srivastava. Dry deposition of sulphate and nitrate to polypropylene surfaces in a semi-arid area of India Atmos. Environ., 31 (1997), pp. 2361-2366.

Javid, M., Bahramifar,N., aYounesi, H., Taghavi, S.M., Raheleh.,G, Atmospheric Research(2015) Dry deposition, seasonal variation and source interpretation of ionic species at Abali, Firouzkouh and Varamin, Tehran Province (157), Iran74-90.

Liu, Z., Xie,Y., Hu, Bo., Wen, Tianxue., Xin, J., Li, X., Wang, Yuesi., (2017). Size-resolved aerosol water-soluble ions during the summer and winter seasons in Beijing: Formation mechanisms of secondary inorganic aerosols. Chemosphere (183), 119-131.

J.G., (2002).Watson Visibility: science and regulation J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc., (52), 628-713.

Molina, M.J., Molina, L.T., (2004) Megacities and atmospheric pollution. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc., (54), 644-680.

Joos, F., Baltensperger, U., 1991. A field study on chemistry, S (IV) oxidation rates and vertical transport during fog conditions. Atmospheric Environment, 25A, 217–230.

Turšič, J., Grgić, I., Podkrajšek, B., 2003. Influence of ionic strength on aqueous oxidation of SO2 catalyzed by manganese. Atmospheric Environment, 37, 2589–2595.

Dominici, F., McDermott, A., Daniels, M., Zeger, S.L., Samet, J.M., 2005. Revised analyses of the national morbidity, mortality,and air pollution study: mortality among residents of 90 cities.J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 68 (13-14), 1071–1092.

Fang G.C., Kuo, Y. C., Zhuang, Y.J., 2015. Ambient air metallic pollutant study at HAF areas during 2013–2014. Atmospheric Research, 158–159, 107–121.

Fang, G.C., Lin, S.J., Chang, S.Y., Chou, C.C.K., 2009. Effect of typhoon on atmospheric particulates in autumn in central Taiwan. Atmospheric Environment, 43(38), 6039–6048.

Fang, G. C., Wu, Y. S., Fu, P. P.C., Chang, C. N., Chen, M.H., Ho, T. T., Huang, S.H., Rau, J. Y., 2005. Metallic elements study of fine and coarse particulates using a versatile air pollutant system at a traffic sampling site. Atmospheric Research, 75 1–14.

Fang, G.C., Yang, I.L., Liu, C.K., 2010. Measure and modeling the ambient air particles and particle bound mercury. Atmospheric Research 97, 97–105.

Li, N., Sioutas, C., Cho, A., Schmitz,D., Misra, C., Sempf, J., et al., 2003.Ultrafine particulate pollutants induce oxidative stress andmitochondrial damage. Environ. Health Perspect. 111 (4), 45.

Fang, G. C., Huang, Y. L., Huang, J. H., Liu, C. K., 2012. Dry deposition of Mn, Zn, Cr, Cu and Pb in particles of sizes of 3 μm, 5.6 μm and 10 μm in central Taiwan. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 203–204 (15), pp. 158–168.

Joos, F., Baltensperger, U., A field study on chemistry, S(IV) oxidation rates and vertical transport during fog conditions. Atmospheric Environment 25, 217-230.

HUANG, H., LEE, S, C., CAO, J.J., ZOU,C.W, 2007. Characteristics of indoor/outdoor PM2.5 and elemental components in generic urban, roadside and industrial plant areas of Guangzhou City, China. Journal of Environmental Sciences 19: 35–43.

Kuo, H. W., Huna, Y.S., 2010. Indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in the air during a dust storm. Building and Environment45(3): 610-614.

Ahumada, H.T., Whitehead,L., Blanco,S., 2007. Personal exposure to PM2.5 and element composition—A comparison between outdoor and indoor workers from two Mexican cities. Atmospheric Environment 41, (35); 7401-7413

Sangiorgi,G., Ferrero,L., Ferrini, B.S.,Porto,C.Lo.,Perrone, M.G.,Zangrandob, R.,Gambarob, A.,Lazzatido, Z.,Bolzacchini, E., 2013. Indoor airborne particle sources and semi-volatile partitioning effect of outdoor fine PM in offices. Atmospheric Environment (65), 205-214.

Wang, X., Bi ,X., Sheng, G., Fu, J., 2006. Hospital indoor PM10/PM2.5 and associated trace elements in Guangzhou, China. Science of The Total Environment (366)124-135.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Guor-Cheng Fang, Guan-Jhih Jhao, Chin-Wei Chang, Wen-Chuan Huang, Yuan-Jie Zhuang

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.