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by Xiaoxiao Wang, Ying Zhou
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This research explores “urban sprawl” to discover the reasons behind urban land-use changes and urban pattern transformations on a regional level. It begins with definitions of sprawl in Western and Eastern countries, then provides an adequate data analysis: collects related Index for urban sprawl and sustainable development for 15 top urban regions over 10 years (1999, 2004, and 2009), indicates which parameters can be considered as indicators for sustainable development in urban sprawl in China, and points out how these parameters affect the process of urban sprawl in the major cities in China.


by Galder Abos Mendizabal1, Roberto Nuño Solinis2, Irune Zaballa Gonzalez2
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A virtual professional community of practice (VCoP), HOBE+, was set up in 2011 to foster and facilitate innovation . It was aimed at all primary care professionals of the Basque Public Health Service (Osakidetza) in the provinces of Biscay and Araba. HOBE+ incorporated a innovation management process from the generation of ideas to their implementation.

In 2015, based on its success, HOBE+ became a corporate tool in Osakidetza extending its radio of action to all employees and settings (primary and Hospital care).

This manuscript objective is to assess, via a case study method, the process of developing and implementing a VCoP open to all primary care professionals in Osakidetza, including the take-up, participation and use of this VCoP in the first 15 months after its launch in October 2011. The usefulness of the VCoP was also assessed through a survey gathering the opinions of the professionals involved.

The experience shows that it is possible to create a virtual CoP for innovation in primary care where professionals from different professional categories propose ideas for innovation that are ultimately implemented; a experience that had been later on refined and extended to all Osakidetza.



by Abel Tewolde Mehari
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This study considered data collected from 150 customers of Commercial Bank of Ethiopia(CBE) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Those respondents were selected randomly from five branches of CBE in Addis Ababa: Finfinne branch, Theodros branch, Arat Killo branch, Saris Branch, and TemenjaYazh Branch. In drawing the samples from those representative branches, non-probability convenience sampling method has been used where customers are intercepted at the branches of the banks until the required sample size is reached.

The objectives of this study are to assess: mobile banking usage frequency of customers,  mobile banking transaction items, customers’ perceived benefit of mobile banking, compelling factors to use mobile banking, perception and satisfaction level of customers.

Accordingly, of the distributed 150 questionnaires 113 were returned and valid for analysis. Based on this data the following are some of conclusions were made:

This study unveils that interruption of network and uneasiness to login are the major problems of mobile banking service provision in the study area.

From the ologit analysis result the study confirms usage frequency of mobile banking service is significantly affected by Age of the user (subscriber for ATM services), gender (subscriber for ATM services), and network interruption, lack of security, login difficulty, service charge and Doubt of the user about security. However, the availability of Forex information in the mobile banking service package does not have significant relationship with usage frequency. Specifically age of the user, logindifficulty, service charge and network interruption have extremely strong relationship with the usage frequency of customers towards mobile banking services.