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A Brief Review of the Referee System in Japan

Weixuan Zhang


Since 2009, Japan’s Referees Law has been in effect for over 10 years. Initially, the referees system saw active participation and an efficient voting system. However, issues arose in the interface between the trial and jury systems. This paper assesses the reform process, successes, and shortcomings of the referee system.


Referee system; Jury system model; Trial level system

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18686/ahe.v8i2.13058