• Login
  • Register
  • Search

The Process of User Entrepreneurial Opportunity Development from the Perspective of Cognition

Jinbo Zhou, Weiren Cen


This study examines the cognitive process behind user entrepreneurial behavior, drawing on entrepreneurial cognitive theory and focusing on Bilibili as a typical user entrepreneurial company. It identifies two pathways to idea generation during the opportunity creation stage: entrepreneurial vigilance and entrepreneurial bricolage, both driven by counterfactual thinking. The opportunity evaluation stage involves risk-reward perception and cognition leading to the formation of first-person opportunity beliefs and third-person opportunity evaluations by user entrepreneurs. The opportunity development stage involves two key mechanisms: exploration-oriented entrepreneurial model innovation and new enterprise growth for external mechanisms, and cognitive factors such as perspective-taking and effectual reasoning for internal mechanisms, promoting innovation and resource acquisition in new enterprises.


User Entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurial Opportunity; Opportunity Development; Cognitive Perspective

Full Text:


Included Database


Chen PC., Chan WC., Hung SW., & Lin DZ. (2020). How entrepreneurs recognise entrepreneurial opportunity and its gaps: a cognitive theory perspective. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 32(2), 223-238.

Escobar O., Schiavone F., Khvatova T., & Rivieccio G. (2021). Lead user innovation and entrepreneurship: Analyzing the current state of research. Journal of Small Business Management, 1-18.

Hamdi-Kidar L., & Vellera C. (2018). Triggers entrepreneurship among creative consumers. Journal of Business Research, 92, 465-473.

Kalisz D., Schiavone F., Rivieccio G., Aversano N., & Garavelli AC. (2021). Analyzing the macro-level determinants of user entrepreneurship. The moderating role of the national culture. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 33(3-4), 185-207.

Low J. (2019). A pragmatic definition of the concept of theoretical saturation. Sociological Focus, 52(2), 131-139.

Pandit NR. (1996). The creation of theory: A recent application of the grounded theory method. The Qualitative Report, 2(4), 1-15.

Pedeliento G., Bettinelli C., Andreini D., & Filippetti A. (2018). Consumer entrepreneurship and cultural innovation: The case of GinO12. Journal of Business Research, 92, 431-442.

Raza A., Muffatto M., & Saeed S. (2020). Cross-country differences in innovative entrepreneurial activity: An entrepreneurial cognitive view. Management Decision, 58(7), 1301-1329.

Schiavone F., Rivieccio G., Paolone F., & Colombo G. (2021). The macro-level determinants of user entrepreneurship in healthcare: An explorative cross-country analysis. Management Decision, 59(5), 1158-1178.

Shah SK., & Tripsas M. (2007). The accidental entrepreneur: The emergent and collective process of user entrepreneurship. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 1(1-2), 123-140.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18686/fm.v8i4.9584